New Litagion agent profiles for hexane, aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A, and a new theme summarizing CoMeta content related to mycotoxins
New cross-line clash liability catastrophe scenarios for 1,4-dioxane and diesel exhaust
New blog content: "The future of plastics is less plastic. Way less plastic"
Updated Litagion agent and company profiles impacted by newly published peer-reviewed science and newly gathered company information
Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus fungi. These fungi can contaminate crops such as hay, wheat, millet, sorghum, cassava, cannabis, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetable oils, and various spices, nuts, and seeds. The contamination can occur in the field, during harvest, or while stored, but is most common under hot and humid conditions. People can be exposed to aflatoxin by eating contaminated plant products or meat and dairy from animals that consumed contaminated feed. Agricultural workers may inhale aflatoxin during the handling and processing of contaminated crops and feeds.
Ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium that contaminate a wide variety of food products including cereals, coffee, dried fruit, and red wine. Contamination can occur in the field, during harvest, or while stored, but is most common under hot and humid conditions. People can be exposed to ochratoxin by eating contaminated plant products or meat and dairy from animals that consumed contaminated feed.
Hexane. Hexane [CAS No. 110-54-3] is a solvent used in industrial processes and as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products. Hexane serves as a cleaning agent in printing, automotive repair, and shoe, textile, and furniture manufacturing. A major use of hexane is in the extraction of edible oils such as canola and soy from seeds and vegetables. Hexane can also be found in consumer products such as spray adhesives, contact cement, arts and craft paints, and stain removers.
Mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium that contaminate grains, cereals, dried fruits, nuts, and seeds. People can be exposed to mycotoxins by eating contaminated plant products or meat and dairy from animals that consumed contaminated feed. Mycotoxins may also be present in buildings. Acute mycotoxin poisoning can result in serious harm or death. Chronic exposure can cause cancer, lung damage, and immune deficiency. Mycotoxins are most prevalent in hot and humid climates and are likely to become more common with climate change. Several hundred different mycotoxins have been identified. Among the most observed are aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. This theme also includes mold, exposure to which can have adverse health effects beyond those associated with mycotoxins.
Liability catastrophe scenarios
1,4-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of industrial and consumer products. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified 1,4-dioxane as a probable human carcinogen in 2008 and upgraded its assessment to likely human carcinogen in 2010. 1,4-dioxane is persistent and mobile in the environment and, combined with its potential toxicity, a contaminant of concern for U.S. drinking water systems. In this scenario, EPA responds to the environmental and health risks posed by 1,4-dioxane by establishing an enforceable drinking water standard. Publicly- and privately-owned water systems nationwide file lawsuits in state and federal courts seeking to recover the cost of removing 1,4-dioxane to levels that meet the new standard.
Diesel exhaust. There is growing evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust can cause a variety of disease conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke. In these scenarios, the federal government and state attorneys general file suit in state and federal courts seeking to recover the cost of treating diesel induced ASD and cardiovascular disease under Medicare and state Medicaid programs. Defendants include oil refineries, port operations, railroads, trucking companies, and truck, bus, locomotive, and diesel engine manufacturers. Local governments also file suit seeking to recover the cost of providing special education services to autistic children. In some scenario variants, individual plaintiffs file traditional personal injury lawsuits as well.